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The wiser way to work

ES5 Note: These and are not created in strict mode.

ES5 Note: In strict mode, will throw a since its use has been deprecated.

Constructors in JavaScript are yet again different from many other languages. Any function call that is preceded by the keyword acts as a constructor.

Inside the constructor - the called function - the value of refers to a newly created object. The Ancient Greek Sandals Pasoumi RoundToe Mules Visit New Cheap Price Visa Payment For Sale 1bBvTkGkS
of this new object is set to the of the function object that was invoked as the constructor.

If the function that was called has no explicit statement, then it implicitly returns the value of - the new object.

The above calls as constructor and sets the of the newly created object to .

In case of an explicit statement, the function returns the value specified by that statement, but only if the return value is an .

When the keyword is omitted, the function will not return a new object.

While the above example might still appear to work in some cases, due to the workings of Sale Pay With Paypal René Caovilla Rene Caovilla BeadedEmbellished LaceUp Pumps Fashionable For Sale a1pMja24
in JavaScript, it will use the as the value of .


In order to be able to omit the keyword, the constructor function has to explicitly return a value.

Both calls to return the same thing, a newly created object that has a property called , which is a Closure .

It should also be noted that the call does not affect the prototype of the returned object. While the prototype will be set on the newly created object, never returns that new object.

In the above example, there is no functional difference between using and not using the keyword.

Creating New Objects via Factories

It is often recommended to not use because forgetting its use may lead to bugs.

In order to create a new object, one should rather use a factory and construct a new object inside of that factory.

While the above is robust against a missing keyword and certainly makes the use of Lanvin Python Half dOrsay Booties Buy Cheap Official Site HdIV9D6
easier, it comes with some downsides.

In Conclusion

While omitting the keyword might lead to bugs, it is certainly not a reason to drop the use of prototypes altogether. In the end it comes down to which solution is better suited for the needs of the application. It is especially important to choose a specific style of object creation and use it consistently .

Although JavaScript deals fine with the syntax of two matching curly braces for blocks, it does not support block scope; hence, all that is left in the language is .

There are also no distinct namespaces in JavaScript, which means that everything gets defined in one namespace.

Each time a variable is referenced, JavaScript will traverse upwards through all the scopes until it finds it. In the case that it reaches the global scope and still has not found the requested name, it will raise a .

The Bane of Global Variables

The above two scripts do not have the same effect. Script A defines a variable called in the scope, and script B defines a in the scope.

Again, that is not at all the : not using can have major implications.

Leaving out the statement inside the function will override the value of . While this might not seem like a big deal at first, having thousands of lines of JavaScript and not using will introduce horrible, hard-to-track-down bugs.

The outer loop will terminate after the first call to , since overwrites the global value of . Using a for the second loop would have easily avoided this error. The statement should never be left out unless the is to affect the outer scope.

Local Variables

The only source for local variables in JavaScript are function parameters and variables declared via the statement.

While and are local variables inside the scope of the function , the assignment of will override the global variable with the same name.


JavaScript hoists declarations. This means that both statements and declarations will be moved to the top of their enclosing scope.

The above code gets transformed before execution starts. JavaScript moves the statements, as well as declarations, to the top of the nearest surrounding scope.

Missing block scoping will not only move statements out of loops and their bodies, it will also make the results of certain constructs non-intuitive.

In the original code, although the statement seemed to modify the , it actually modifies the - after hoisting has been applied.

Without knowledge of , one might suspect the code below would raise a .

But of course, this works due to the fact that the statement is being moved to the top of the .

Name Resolution Order

All scopes in JavaScript, including the , have the special name Sale Buy Jimmy Choo Suede AnkleStrap Booties Buy Cheap Outlet Cheap Clearance Store zlnau0AH
, defined in them, which refers to the .

Function scopes also have the name , defined in them, which contains the arguments that were passed to the function.

For example, when trying to access a variable named inside the scope of a function, JavaScript will look up the name in the following order:


A common problem associated with having only one global namespace is the likelihood of running into problems where variable names clash. In JavaScript, this problem can easily be avoided with the help of .

Unnamed functions are considered 2018 Unisex For Sale Buy Cheap Browse Prada Metallic Thong Sandals 2018 New Cheap Price Wide Range Of For Sale Discount Top Quality zbGiZLq22
; so in order to be callable, they must first be evaluated.

There are other ways to evaluate and directly call the function expression which, while different in syntax, behave the same way.

In Conclusion

It is recommended to always use an to encapsulate code in its own namespace. This does not only protect code against name clashes, but it also allows for better modularization of programs.

Additionally, the use of global variables is considered bad practice . Any use of them indicates badly written code that is prone to errors and hard to maintain.

Note: When not used in an assignment, return statement or as a function argument, the notation will get interpreted as a block statement and not as an object literal. This, in conjunction with Australia Luxe Collective Cosy Tall Boots Free Shipping Choice VxpB9q4F6s
, can lead to subtle errors.



Berkeley, CA's independent news site

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By Tracey Taylor

This week, the American Planning Association named Berkeley’sNorthbrae neighborhood a Top 10 Great Neighborhood for 2011. In making its selection, the organization took into consideration views, unique features, engaged residents — and good planning, of course.

The ten winners — which included Chicago’s Pullman neighborhood and Birmingham, Alabama — exemplify, according to the APA, “exceptional character and highlight the role planners and planning play in creatingcommunities of lasting value”:

Developer Duncan McDuffie was the brains behind Northbrae. A conservationist who favored single-family houses ontree-lined streets in a park-like setting, his initial plans for the area were influencedby the local Chamber of Commerce’s proposal to move the state capitol to Berkeley.Stone pillars, streets named for California counties, and a majestic public circle withclassical balustrade and fountain were all part of the package. Magnificent rocks and boulders were also part of the landscape’s attraction.

Speaking about the area, Berkeley’s District 5 councilmember Laurie Capitelli said: “The Northbrae neighborhood is an amazing place to live.The vision developed in theearly 20th century has transitioned beautifully into the 21st: small-scaleshopping districts, restored creeks, walkable amenities – schools, library, parks – and astreet plan that augments and preserves the natural beauty of the Berkeley Hills and views of the San Francisco Bay.”

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on their doorstep already knows they are living in a pretty swell place.

For those considering moving in, they would want to know that houses get snapped up pretty quickly in Northbrae, for all the reasons cited above. Average prices come in comfortably under $500/sq foot, and the architectureranges from the traditional wood-paneled Craftsman to Spanish-style 1920s bungalows. Three bedrooms is the norm, and a significant number of the area’s homes are on one level.

There are currently half a dozen homes for sale in Northbrae, including the 3-bedroom, 3-bathroom brown shingle at 928 Fresno Avenue ($995,000); the 1,400 sq ft traditional bungalowat Prada Sport SquareToe Suede Wedges Best Supplier t2JMmx4Z
($699,000); and the one-story Craftsman at 922 Modoc Street ($719,000).

Berkeleyside publishes many articles every day. To see all our stories in chronological order, and read ones you may have missed, check out ourrecently launched All the Newsgrid .

Northbrae was singled out for its abundance of preserved views of the San FranciscoBay; garden suburb design with streets and footpaths that follow the contour of thehills and gracefully skirt outcroppings of magnificent volcanic rock; impressivepublic spaces and amenities; and engaged residents who have done much to restoreand maintain the neighborhood.”

Pharr, C. 1985. Homeric Greek, a book for beginners . University of Oklahoma Press: Norman and London.

Ragon, E. 1976. Grammaire grecque . Paris: J. de Gigord.

Riemann, O. C. Cucuel. 1986. Syntaxe grecque . Nouvelle Collection à l'Usage des Classes 5 . Paris: Klincksieck.

Schwyzer, E. A. Debrunner. 1950. Griechiesche grammatik , Vol. 2 . München.

Le service d'export bibliographique est disponible aux institutions qui ont souscrit à un des programmes freemium d'OpenEdition. Si vous souhaitez que votre institution souscrive à l'un des programmes freemium d'OpenEdition et bénéficie de ses services, écrivez à : [email protected]

Sinha, C. T. Kuteva. 1995. Distributed spatial semantics. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 18: 167-199.DOI : 10.1017/S0332586500000159

Skopeteas, S. 2008. Grammaticalization and sets of form-function pairs: Encoding spatial concepts in Greek. In: Verhoeven, E., S. Skopeteas et al. (eds) Studies on Grammaticalization , Trends in Linguistics – Studies and Monographs 205 . Mouton de Gruyter, 25–58.

Slobin, D. 2004. The many ways to search for a frog: linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In: Strömqvist, S. L. Verhoeven (eds.) Relating events in narratives: typological and contextual perspectives . Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 219-257.

Slobin, D. 1996. From “thought and language” to “thinking for speaking”. In: Gumperz, J., J. Levinson A. Stephen (eds.) Rethinking linguistic relativity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 70-96.

Soroli, E. M. Hickmann, in press. Language and spatial representations in French and in English: evidence from eye-movements. In G. Marotta, Lenci, A., Meini, L. F. Rovai (eds.) Space in Language . Pisa: Editrice Testi Scientifici.

Stefanowitsch, A. A. Rohde. 2004. The goal bias in the encoding of motion events. In: Panther, K.-U. G. Radden (eds.) Motivation in Grammar . Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 249-268.

Svorou, S. 1994. The Grammar of Space. [Typological Studies in Language 25] . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Talmy, L. 2000. Toward a cognitive semantics . Bradford Books.

Le service d'export bibliographique est disponible aux institutions qui ont souscrit à un des programmes freemium d'OpenEdition. Si vous souhaitez que votre institution souscrive à l'un des programmes freemium d'OpenEdition et bénéficie de ses services, écrivez à : [email protected]

Talmy, L. 1991. Path to realization: a typology of event conflation. In: Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society 17 .DOI : 10.3765/bls.v17i0.1620

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